N04: Negotiation: Strategy and Planning
To avoid the problem, convince the other party to agree with what you want, and eventually accomplish in a negotiation, planning before having a negotiation is a must.
In this chapter, we are learning how negotiators can set goals and objectives clearly so that they can plan later the appropriate approach. Effective goals must be concrete, specific and measurable. As a result, it would be easier to communicate to the other party what we want, help us also understand what the other party want and determines if an offer satisfies our goals.
When having the concrete goals and objectives, negotiators must develop strategy. To do so, negotiators have to integrate plan with targets, policies, and action sequences. They have to ensure selecting effective strategies and tactics, which are helpful to accomplish a negotiation purposes. For example, Active-Engagement strategies are often used when the main goal is to build and strengthen the relationship and the negotiator is willing to sacrifice the outcome.
Understanding the steps or flow in a negotiation also affects the success of negotiation. The parties need to understand first how negotiations are normally likely to evolve and why planning and developing appropriate strategy is so important.
To develop effective negotiation planning, there are several critical points negotiators need to concentrate on:
- The parties have to define the issues which are needed to be discusses in the negotiation.
- Negotiators have to assemble all the issues that have been defined and determined the most important ones.
- Negotiators should define “interests” of both parties in order to achieve in the negotiation easily.
- The parties have to know “a resistance point” where you feel that is acceptable and unacceptable, and then prepare alternatives if needed.
- Negotiators need to determine what outcome they would be comfortable with.
- The parties need to assess constituents and the social context of the negotiation.
- After knowing the planning process, it’s important to analyzing the other party as well. It is advantageous to prepare for a negotiation by gathering information about the other party, their issues, interests, resistant points, objectives, etc. So you can develop effective negotiation approach.
When negotiators are able to consider and evaluate these important factors, they will know how to proceed and accomplish the negotiation.
1. What should we do before we start the negotiation strategy?
Planning and preparation will help lead you to success. Planning your negotiation strategy should always come before selecting negotiating tactics. Your negotiation strategy serves as the foundation for the approach and techniques that you use to achieve your goals.
2. How to prepare the purpose for asking?
1. Have a plan. When you are negotiating, it is helpful to have a goal in mind. Ask yourself, “What type of information will help me make a good decision?
2. Know your counterpart. The more you can find out about your counterpart, the better you can target your questions.
3. Use proper timing. Be sensitive to your counterpart’s feelings. If your counterpart finds a question offensive, he will give you less information and will be less willing to negotiate with you again
4. Move from the broad to the narrow. As you gain answers to broad questions, start asking questions that yield more specific information.
5. Ask permission to ask a question. Asking permission is polite, and it starts the swing toward agreement. Once your counterpart has granted you permission, she is more likely to give you a complete answer.
3. What is the direct effect of goals on strategy?
- Wishes are not goals
- Goals are often linked to the other party's goals
- There are limits to what goals can be
- Effective goals must be concrete/specific